What You Really Need to Know about Cancer

Wednesday, September 3, 2014

Tomato-rich diet helps to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer

Tomato-rich diet helps to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer
Various studies have proven that certain types of food can alter the activities of cancer cells in the body. Foods like tomato, grapes, and berries help to fight against cancer and reduce the risk of developing cancer. A recent study has found that tomato-rich diet helps to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer

Researchers at the Universities of Bristol, Cambridge and Oxford University have found that men who consume tomato and its products have less chance of developing prostate cancer compare to men who consume less amount of tomato. Prostate cancer is the second most common form of cancer in men worldwide. According to researchers, tomato and its products were shown to be significantly beneficial with 18% reduction in risk found in men who eat 10 potion a week.  

Reduction in risk of developing prostate cancer is thought to be due to lycopene. Lycopene is an antioxidant which fight off toxins and other chemical substances which can damage cell membrane and DNA.

Learn more about prostatectomy 

Along with tomato, consumption of other type of fruits, vegetables and foods rich in fiber are important for prostate cancer prevention and also it reduces the risk of developing lung cancer and gastric cancer

Friday, August 15, 2014

Cologuard: First DNA based colorectal cancer screening test

Image of cologuard kitCologuard is an in votro colon cancer screening test that integrates both stool DNA and fecal immunological test techniques. It is designed to analyze person’s stool sample for DNA markers associated with the presence of Colorectal cancer and pre-cancerous cells or adenoma. After 15 years of research EXACT SCIENCES has developed this technique and has done a comprehensive research on its effectiveness before FDA approval.

Click here to read more about warning signs of Colon Cancer

Cologuard indication for use

colorectal cancer
Cologuard is indicated for the use of screening test for the recognition of Colorectal cancer associated with DNA markers to check for the presence of occult hemoglobin in stool. Cologuard is not a replacement of present colon cancer investigation Colonoscopy. It can be done along with colonoscopy according to the screening guidelines. It is more indicated for people who have high risk of having colon cancer.

Cologuard screening procedure

There are three steps involved in screening with Cologuard. They are:
  • Collection of stool by patient using stool collecting kit.
  • Analyzing stool sample in the laboratory
  • Application of an algorithm that produces positive or negative results.
The sample collection kit comes with all necessary tools including instruction for use or user manual, stool collection container, a preservative solution, protein sample tube with stool collection stick and buffer.

Cologuard Principles of operation

cologuardCologuard detects markers of altered DNA present in the cell shed by the cancerous cells and polyps in large intestine. Those markers are released from the cells that regularly and continuously slought from the lining of the large intestine into the stool. Cologuard has ability to detect the very few amount of DNA markers to identify Colorectal cancer.

Cologuard is able to identify three independent families of DNA markers that exhibits additive relationship with Colorectal cancer and pre-malignant Colorectal cancer.
  1. Targets epigastric changes in the form of gene promoter region methylation.
  2. Targets specific point mutation
  3. Family of markers is non-DNA based and detects hemoglobin in the fecal sample
Image of cologuard kit
In addition, the molecular assay component of Cologuard is used to access the genes NDRG4 and BMP3 for irregular methylation. It is also designed to measure methylation in a range of CpG sites in NDGR4 and 8 CpG sites in BMP3 promoter regions. The mutation assay component of Cologuard detects seven common KRAS mutations at codons 12 and 13. Mutant KRAS gene plays a key role in the development of Colorectal cancer in that it is a key activator in Colorectal tumorigenesis. As such, KRAS mutations afford a valuable marker for the recognition of Colorectal cancer.

The hemoglobin assay component of Cologuard is done to detect the existence of fecal hemoglobin, which can show blood loss in the gastrointestinal tract from cancerous tumors or polyps that bleed intermittently into the intestine.


With this new invention, now we can do Colorectal cancer screening at home and we can post sample to hospital with the postal form included in Cologuard kit. This is a very feasible and reliable way to detect early Colorectal cancer. Cologuard, Colorectal cancer screening is recommended for people of age 50 and above for both sex and it’s highly recommended for people who are at higher risk of developing Colorectal cancer.

Thursday, August 14, 2014

Obesity increases risk of developing 17 specific types of cancer: Study finds

obesityResearchers from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine have found that overweight and obesity are linked to 17 specific types of cancer. A study published in the Lancet. Medical records and BMI of 5.4 millions of people were calculated and analyzed in this research. A team of medical experts observed whether the person has a risk of developing cancer or whether the person is likely to diagnose for any sort of cancer based on his or her BMI. The results unprecedented size and rigour – brought more types of cancer into the picture.

What they observed from the study?

The study showed that obesity has direct link on developing womb cancer in female, the higher a woman’s BIM, the higher the chances of developing womb cancer. Researchers also found significant development of gallbladder cancer, kidney cancer, liver cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, thyroid cancer, ovarian cancer, leukemia, and post-menopausal breast cancer.  
Study also revealed that obese men are more likely to develop any sort of cancer than obese women. The team also found, being underweight is also linked to high risk of developing oral cancer, gastric cancer and lung cancer.  
Study result about link between obesity and cancer
Click on this image to view the study results

How does obesity cause cancer?

obese woman
This is a very important question that we need to get the answer. There are several theories but there is no definite answer for this question. Researchers have done various studies to find the exact cause but until today there is no specific study which reveals the exact relationship between obesity and cancer or how obesity causes cancer? Perhaps, we are supposed to believe there is a strong relationship between obesity and cancer.

What should we learn from this study?

balanced diet
Based on the study results we should believe that obesity has a risk of developing various cancer, and also obesity is an independent risk factor for developing diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Regular exercise, a balanced diet, implementing healthy habits would help to reduce chances of developing cancer

Tuesday, August 12, 2014

FDA approves new Colorectal cancer screening test

Image of Cologuard
A new colorectal screening test that can detect red blood cells and abnormal DNA in person’s stool has been approved by the American Food and Drug Administration.

The noninvasive Cologuard has shown more than 90% accuracy in clinical trial and it can be performed at home.

Colorectal cancer is the second most leading cancer death in USA after lung cancer, primarily it affects people of age between 50 and above.

FDA believes that more 50% of colorectal cancer deaths can be prevented if everyone aged of 50 can be screened regularly.

“This approval offers patients and physicians another option to screen for colorectal cancer,” said Alberto Gutierrez, Ph.D., director of the Office of In Vitro Diagnostics and Radiological Health at the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health.

How does Cologuard work?

Cologuard detects certain DNA mutations in cells that are shed by advanced adenoma. Adenoma is a polyp that develop along the wall of the large intestine (including rectum). Cologuard also detects red blood protein hemoglobin. These findings may indicate the presence of certain kinds of abnormal growths that may be cancers such as colon cancer

Who produce Cologuard?

It is produced by the Exact Science of Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Exact Science  is a molecular diagnostics company focused on the early detection and prevention of colorectal cancer

Monday, August 4, 2014

Protein ZEB1 Promotes Breast Tumor Resistance to Radiation Therapy: Research

Recent research has revealed that breast cancer tumor can get resistant to radiation therapy. A study conducted from the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center shows that ZEB1 ( A protein acts as a transcriptional repressor. Inhibits interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene expression) may actually be helping breast tumor cells repair DNA damage caused by radiation therapy by ramping up a first-line of defense known as DNA damage response pathway.

Radiation causes cell death by inducing DNA damage. Cancerous cells do not get often DNA repaired compared to normal tissue cells. Normal cells usually get repaired its DNA damages after radiation therapy through a serious of mechanisms by the DNA repair genes. Researches have shown that very rarely cancer cells DNA get repaired after radiation therapy. But until today the mechanism is unclear.

A study led by Dr Li Ma assistant professor of experimental radiation oncology at MD Anderson reported that their studies have shown that ZEB1 (Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1) can induce a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which allows certain tumor to acquire cancer stem cell properties including radioresistance.

Since radiation therapy plays an important role in breast cancer management it’s very important to overcome the obstacle of radioresistant tumor cells. “it is important to identify the critical causes and to develop safe and effective new methods for treatment including the possible use of agents that target ZEB1 and which inhibit CHK1” said Dr Li Ma.
Breast Tumor Resistance to Radiation Therapy
Dr Li Ma

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