Endometrial carcinoma is the most common invasive cancer of the female genital tract and accounts for 7% of all invasive cancer in women. Endometrial carcinoma is very rare in women above 40 years. Usually it occurs in women who are in premenopausal and postmenopausal stage. The peak incidence occurs at the age of 50 to 59 years and the average age is 55 years.
Endometrial carcinoma: Causes
The following are usually related to development of endometrial carcinoma.
Estrogen over activity: Endometrial carcinoma is associated with prolonged estrogen stimulation and endometrial hyperplasia.
Obesity: Obese women have higher risk of getting endometrial cancer
Smoking: Nicotine and other chemical substances in the smoke interferes the hepatic conversion of estron to its active for metabolic estroil, is linked with risk of developing endometrial carcinoma.
Endometrial Hyperplasia: Cystic glandular hyperplasia and glandular hyperplasia, if left untreated, may eventually progress to atypical hyperplasia and carcinoma of endometrium is about 10% cases.
History of breast and ovarian cancer: Women having family history of breast cancer and ovarian cancer have higher risk of getting endometrial cancer.
Myomas: endometrial carcinoma and uterine myomas are usually related.
Endometrial carcinoma: Metastasis
Direct Spread: direct metastasis to myometrium with eventual spread to preuterine structures, such as fallopian tube, ovaries, vagina, and other pelvic organs.
Lymphatic spread: spread to vagina through pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes.
Hematogenous spread: cancer cells spreads to bone, lungs, liver and other organs through blood supply.
Endometrial cancer: stages
Endometrial carcinoma stages can be divided as follow:
Stage 1: carcinoma is confined to corpus uteri
Stage 2: carcinoma has invaded to corpus and cervix
Stage 3: carcinoma has spread beyond the uterus, but not outside the uterine pelvis
Stage 4: carcinoma has spread beyond uterus and has spread mucosa of bladder and rectum.